Although the use of polyethylene mulch film has contributed greatly to agricultural production and the safe supply of agricultural products. Its long-term application has also brought about problems of mulch film residues, which have damaged soil structure, stunted crop growth and affected farming operations. In the face of new problems, some new opportunities have emerged, such as the use of environmentally friendly, fully biodegradable mulch films as a new product alternative. However, the research between the functional, economic and ecological effects of traditional polyethylene mulch films and fully biodegradable mulch films needs to be further strengthened to clarify the differences, complementarities and application prospects of the two. Therefore, this report aims to systematically describe the characteristics of traditional and fully biodegradable mulch films, and to comprehensively compare the two products from the above three dimensions to identify and compare their respective advantages and disadvantages, and then to select suitable mulch film pollution prevention measures for China.