The China Transport Sector Policy Briefing is a format that aims to provide news on the latest policies in the Chinese transport and mobility sector. Compiled by the GIZ China Mobility Team, it will on a regular basis provide insights into changes and plans in China’s regulatory landscape in the fields of mobility & infrastructure, environment & climate, as well as industry & technology. Ultimately, this format is meant to inform and fuel dialogue on developments in the transport and mobility sector of China and can be used by everyone interested in the Chinese transport and mobility sector.
All content has been prepared with the greatest possible care and is provided in good faith. The assumptions, views, and opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
█ Mobility and Infrastructure
1. Connections between rail systems in the Yangtze River Delta to be strengthened for better integration of the region: On 6 July 2021, China’s top planning body announced that by 2025 the urban, suburban, and intercity railways of the megacities and poorer interior provinces of the city cluster around Shanghai should be well-connected. The plan targets a maximum inter-change time between different rail systems of no more than 2 to 5 minutes.
2. Ministry of Transport (MoT) aims to enhance integration of transport infrastructure with IT and energy networks for better transport management: The Action Plan includes the construction of smart roads, waterways, ports, and transportation hubs. The Plan emphasizes the importance of digitalization and 5G technology in promoting traffic information infrastructure, strengthening traffic emergency services, and smart logistics.
3. Improving first- and last-mile delivery in rural China for rural development: On 26 July 2021, the State Council issued a guideline for improving the capacity and efficiency of rural delivery services in China, focusing on the “first mile” of agricultural products to the city and the “last mile” of consumer goods to the countryside. Measures focus on the postal system, last mile delivery, e-commerce, and the cold chain with the target of trialing them in 100 pilot projects by June 2022.
4. China to strengthen inter-departmental coordination on road freight through a conference system to promote stable and high-quality development of road transportation. Led by the MoT, the joint conference system contains 16 departments, including the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC), the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), the Ministry of Public Security (MPS), and the Ministry of Finance.
5. Beijing tightens the management of electric three- and four-wheeled scooters in the name of safe and orderly streets: While previously giving much leeway to electric tricycles and four-wheeled scooters on the capital’s streets, Beijing on 12 July 2021 announced a ban on their sales and production without permits. The city also calls upon the industry to create standards for such vehicles in company use. By the end of 2023, all non-compliant vehicles will be banned from the city’s streets.
6. Beijing and Shanghai release Mobility Planning Guidelines: Both planning documents provide detailed instructions on promoting the attractiveness of cycling and walking through improving the road network density, lane continuity, connectivity with public transit, and right of ways for cyclists and pedestrians. The implementation of both plans will be made in conjunction with the 14th Five Year plan at district level.
█ Climate and Environment
7. China’s “1+N” policy system for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality: The State Council and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on 24 October issued the “Working guidance for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality in full and faithful implementation of the new development philosophy”. The policy is the top-level green and low carbon transition guidance for China’s national and international development strategy and functions as the “1” of the 1+N” policy systemfor carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality. It will be supplemented by detailed action plans, the “N”s, in key areas and sectors including energy, industry, transport sectors, and circular economy among others.
8. “1+N” – Action Plan for Carbon Dioxide Peaking Before 2030:Only two days after the “1” policy had been issued, the first “N”, the “Action Plan for Carbon Dioxide Peaking Before 2030” has been issued by the State Council on 26 October. The plan outlines the roadmap for carbon dioxide emission peaking before 2030, covering the 14th and 15th Five-Year Plan periods (2021-2025 and 2026-2030).
9. Climate White Paper published: The State Council on 27 October released the White Paper “Responding to Climate Change: China’s Policies and Actions“, which aims at documenting China’s progress in mitigating climate change. It focuses on China’s strategy in responding to climate change, changes over time and building a fair and rational global climate governance system.
10. China’s updated NDCs: On 28 October 2021, three days ahead of the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of Parties (COP26), China submitted its updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
11. Beijing to include carbon peaking and neutrality in its innovation plan for green technologies: On 27 September 2021, Beijing released measures to further expand the key areas and strengths of green technology innovation in the capital city by adding peaking carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality to its focus areas for innovative development. The nine key development directions include wind power, hydrogen energy, and new energy vehicles. Beijing will strengthen support for core technology research and development, system integration, results transformation, large-scale application, and the formulation and layout standard for intellectual property rights.
█ Industry and Technology
12. Chinese ministries of transport, science, and technology to cooperate for a strong innovation system in the Chinese transport sector: By 2025, basic and applied research in transport shall be significantly strengthened and cutting-edge technologies should be integrated at a faster pace. By 2035, the capacity for basic research and original innovation in China’s transport sector shall be enhanced and innovative technologies shall be fully integrated.
13. China to strengthen interdepartmental coordination on data security in the automotive sector in draft rules: CAC, MPS, MIIT, MoT and NDRC jointly issued the first ever interdepartmental draft rules over data security in the automotive sector, including provisions on data categorization, data processing and handling procedures. This comes as part of a broader national campaign to bolster the government’s authority over commercially collected data.
14. MIIT sets requirements for mass production and admission of highly autonomous vehicles to the Chinese market: The new requirements focus on setting benchmarks for data and network security as well as software upgrades, with the aim to ensure product quality and increase the quality of intelligent and connected vehicles. At the same time, they call for compliance with rules on the storage of personal information and important data within China, while overseas data transfer will need a cross-border security assessment.
15. Requirements for security reviews of cross-border data transfer specified in draft: The draft measures by CAC outline which steps companies must take to get approval to transfer data abroad as well as governmental responsibilities for overseeing security assessments. The public is invited to provide their comments until 28 November 2021.
16. MIIT aims to strengthen cyber security in network of connected vehicles: In a new regulatory push, telecommunications and automotive companies as well as mobility service provider are urged to ramp up security measures with a focus on data recorded by intelligent vehicles, data related to their operation, road conditions, and location information.
17. MIIT releases draft guidelines to increase corporate accountability for safety measures for electric vehicles: OEMs should set up an information management system for production processes to monitor safety and quality, including management of suppliers. At the same time, OEMs are asked to set up an incidence response channel and to establish a monitoring platform for electric vehicles on the road, for which they should send yearly reports to MIIT.
18. MIIT starts battery swapping pilot project for electric vehicles: The goal of the pilot is to boost sales of more than 100,000 battery swap-enabled vehicles and build more than 1,000 battery swap stations, which is estimated to be able reduce carbon emission by more than 2,000,000 tons a year. The first 11 cities to be included in the pilot include Beijing, Nanjing, Wuhan, Sanya, Chongqing, Changchun, Hefei, Jinan, Yibin, Tangshan and Baotou, the last three of which will focus on the heavy truck industry.
19. Data security investigation of China’s Uber Didi Chuxing launched: On 2 July 2021, CAC issued a notice on investigating the leading ride sharing and ride hailing app in China for breaches of data security, just after its IPO in the United States in June 2021. The company is banned from signing up new users until the end of the investigation.